As Purchased and Edible Portion
As Purchased and Edible Portion
In keeping with the spirit of the holiday of Thanksgiving coming up next month, I thought it would be appropriate to go over a frequently asked question on AP and EP (or as purchased and edible portion). We’ll take a common Thanksgiving meal and do a few calculations!
What is Edible Portion and As Purchased?
It’s probably best to first go over some definitions on the topic:
- * Edible portion (EP) is the portion of food that will be served to a customer after the food has been cut and cooked.
- * As purchased (AP) is the portion of food that is in the raw state before any cutting, processing, or cooking has occurred.
- * Percent yield is the factor used to determine how much of the food is lost as a result of the cooking, cutting, and processing of the food.
EP and AP questions should be pretty straightforward. There will typically be two bits of information given, and you need to solve for the third.
The questions can be expressed in weight or price. You may need to calculate the EP weight when given the AP weight and percent yield, or vice versa. Alternatively, you may be asked to solve the equation for the EP cost (cost of the edible portion of food) when given the AP cost (how much was paid for the raw material) and also vice versa.
If you are asked for the weight, the EP weight will always be less than the AP weight since this accounts for the weight of the product after the losses of processing and cooking
If you are asked for the cost, the EP cost will always be higher than the AP cost. Take apples for example. You may need a pound of apples for a recipe and paid $1.00 for that pound of raw apples. But after skinning and coring the apples, you end up needing more of the fruit for the pound needed in the recipe. This increases the cost of the apples.
The equation for determining edible portion weight is EPweight = APweight x percent yield. If you need to calculate the edible portion cost, you would divide, instead of multiply (again, remember the two points above regarding which one will be higher than the other): EPcost = APcost / percent yield
As with any algebra equation, you can flip-flop your variables to solve for what you are looking for. Here is the weight equation written differently for also solving for APweight and percent yield:
APweight = EPweight / percent yield
Percent yield = EPweight / APweight
And for cost:
APcost = EPcost x percent yield
Percent yield = APcost / EPcost
Now let’s dive into that meal!
First we’ll start with the traditional turkey. This meal’s turkey weighs 20 pounds raw and untouched. This information is the as purchased (AP) weight. After cooking, removing the skin, and removing the meat from the bones, we’re left with 9 pounds of edible meat. This is the edible portion (EP) weight. How much did the turkey yield in edible meat? See below for how this was calculated.
- We use the standard formula for weight of: EP = AP x yield
- Flip the equation so it is solving for yield: yield = EP / AP
- Enter in the known variables: yield = 9 pounds EP weight / 20 pounds AP weight
- Solve: yield = 0.45, or 45% yield
Next we’ll work on the stuffing, made up of breadcrumbs, fruit, nuts, and some other ingredients. The completed ready-to-eat stuffing weighs 3.5 pounds (the EP weight). The yield for the stuffing is 87.5%. There wasn’t much waste from any cooking or processing of the stuffing. What was the weight of all the ingredients combined prior to any processing or cooking (AP weight)? See below for this calculation.
- Again, we’ll use the standard formula for weight of: EP = AP x yield
- This time, though, we flip the equation so it is solving for AP: AP = EP / yield
- Enter in the known variables: AP = 3.5 pounds EP weight / 0.875 yield
- Solve: AP = 4 pounds of raw stuffing ingredients
Finally, we’ll finish off with some sweet pumpkin pie. Except this time, we’re going to look at it from a cost perspective. The cost of the fresh pumpkin is $2.00. The pumpkin has an edible portion yield of 43%. What is the edible portion cost of the pumpkin? See below.
- This time we’ll use the formula for cost, not weight: EP cost = AP cost / yield
- Enter in the known variables: EP cost = $2.00 AP cost of the raw pumpkin / 0.43 yield
- Solve: EP cost = $4.65 cost of the edible portion of the pumpkin.